Date of Award

Fall 12-6-2023

Document Type


Degree Name

Bachelor of Arts (BA)



First Advisor

Maggie Greaves

Second Advisor

Marc C. Conner


In this paper, I propose that James Joyce reveals the ways in which artists registered the rising imposition of public time within schools which subsequently contributed to the mechanization of art and an emphasis on original production. Then, Sally Rooney helps us to see that these anxieties are still present in what Ian Kidd has labeled our “culture of speed” (339). Like the literary modernists, we are afraid that humans have been mechanized with the sole motivation of efficient production which leaves no time for creative thought and innovation. In response to these concerns, we have placed a great amount of pressure on a need for originality, but Rooney proposes that instead of resisting the past, we should let it in to our artistic processes. By doing so, we will return to a love for art which will be the driving force in our contemporary success.

Creative Commons License

Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.