Cardiac, Skeletal, and Smooth Muscle Mitochondrial Respiration: Are All Mitochondria Created Equal?
Oxidative phosphorylation capacity, respiratory control ratio, feed arteries
Unlike cardiac and skeletal muscle, little is known about vascular smooth muscle mitochondrial respiration. Therefore, the present study examined mitochondrial respiratory rates in smooth muscle of healthy human feed arteries and compared with that of healthy cardiac and skeletal muscles. Cardiac, skeletal, and smooth muscles were harvested from a total of 22 subjects (53 ± 6 yr), and mitochondrial respiration was assessed in permeabilized fibers. Complex I + II, state 3 respiration, an index of oxidative phosphorylation capacity, fell progressively from cardiac to skeletal to smooth muscles (54 ± 1, 39 ± 4, and 15 ± 1 pmol·s−1·mg−1, P < 0.05, respectively). Citrate synthase (CS) activity, an index of mitochondrial density, also fell progressively from cardiac to skeletal to smooth muscles (222 ± 13, 115 ± 2, and 48 ± 2 μmol·g−1·min−1, P < 0.05, respectively). Thus, when respiration rates were normalized by CS (respiration per mitochondrial content), oxidative phosphorylation capacity was no longer different between the three muscle types. Interestingly, complex I state 2 normalized for CS activity, an index of nonphosphorylating respiration per mitochondrial content, increased progressively from cardiac to skeletal to smooth muscles, such that the respiratory control ratio, state 3/state 2 respiration, fell progressively from cardiac to skeletal to smooth muscles (5.3 ± 0.7, 3.2 ± 0.4, and 1.6 ± 0.3 pmol·s−1·mg−1, P < 0.05, respectively). Thus, although oxidative phosphorylation capacity per mitochondrial content in cardiac, skeletal, and smooth muscles suggest all mitochondria are created equal, the contrasting respiratory control ratio and nonphosphorylating respiration highlight the existence of intrinsic functional differences between these muscle mitochondria. This likely influences the efficiency of oxidative phosphorylation and could potentially alter ROS production.
American Journal of Physiology - Heart and Circulatory Physiology
Park SY, Gifford JR, Andtbacka RH, Trinity JD, Hyngstrom JR, Garten RS, Diakos NA, Ives SJ, Dela F, Larsen S, Drakos S, Richardson RS. Cardiac, skeletal, and smooth muscle mitochondrial respiration: are all mitochondria created equal? Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol. 2014 Aug 1;307(3):H346-52. doi: 10.1152/ajpheart.00227.2014. Epub 2014 Jun 6. PubMed PMID: 24906913; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC4121645.