Date of Award


Document Type


Degree Name

Master of Arts in Liberal Studies (MALS)


Liberal Studies

First Reader

Jeffrey Segrave

Second Reader

Timothy Harper


Context, Transformational Leadership, Transactional Leadership, LeaderMember Exchange, Team Performance Outcomes, Athletic Teams


The purpose of this paper is to propose the Collegiate Athletic Leadership Model (CALM) for National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) athletic teams. The CALM will provide clarity on the interaction and range of transformational and transactional behaviors that may be able to foster positive outcomes at the team and individual level. A review of the literature will suggest that the CALM behaviors be placed in three tiers. The first tier or "Foundation behaviors" are contingent reward, articulating a vision, fostering acceptance of group goals, and providing an appropriate role model. The second tier or "Supporting behavior" is individual consideration which is most effective at the individual level of analysis. Intellectual stimulation and high performance expectations are the third tier or "Developmental behaviors". Leader-member exchange (LMX) is posited as the mediating variable between the CALM behaviors and outcomes at the team and individual level. The CALM will be viewed in the context of academic institutions. These institutions are inherently complex, both in terms of organization and personnel.