Title

Chapter 14 - β-Carbonic Anhydrases: General Features and Medical Implications

Editor

Claudiu Supuran, Giuseppina De Simone

Document Type

Book Chapter

Publication Date

2015

Keywords

Carbonic anhydrase, carbon dioxide, bicarbonate, allostery, inhibition, enzyme, mechanism, metalloenzyme

Abstract

The β-carbonic anhydrases are a structurally unique class of carbonic anhydrases that is found in a diverse array of microorganisms, algae, plants, and invertebrates. These enzymes are likely associated with other enzymes that consume or produce carbon dioxide (CO2) or bicarbonate (HCO3−), and catalyze the interconversion of these species according to the chemical reaction CO2 + H2O ⇆ HCO3− + H+. Evolutionary offshoots of β-carbonic anhydrases hydrolyze the related substances carbonyl sulfide (COS) and carbon disulfide (CS2). In many microorganisms, β-carbonic anhydrases are essential for normal growth. Some β-carbonic anhydrases exhibit allostery, a property not observed in any other class of carbonic anhydrases. As a group, β-carbonic anhydrases are relatively weakly inhibited by sulfonamides and anions, classical inhibitors of most other carbonic anhydrases.

Published In

Carbonic Anhydrases as Biocatalysts

Pages

247-273

DOI

10.1016/B978-0-444-63258-6.00014-7Get

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