Structure of the Pseudomonas Aeruginosa Transamidosome Reveals Unique Aspects of Bacterial tRNA-dependent Asparagine Biosynthesis
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences
Suzuki, T.; Nakamura, A.; Kato, K.; Soll, D.; Tanaka, I.; Sheppard, K.; Yao, M., Structure of the Pseudomonas aeruginosa transamidosome reveals unique aspects of bacterial tRNA-dependent asparagine biosynthesis. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A. 2015, 112 (2), 382-387.
Many prokaryotes lack a tRNA synthetase to attach asparagine to its cognate tRNAAsn, and instead synthesize asparagine from tRNAAsn-bound aspartate. This conversion involves two enzymes: a nondiscriminating aspartyl-tRNA synthetase (ND-AspRS) that forms Asp-tRNAAsn, and a heterotrimeric amidotransferase GatCAB that amidates Asp-tRNAAsn to form Asn-tRNAAsn for use in protein synthesis. ND-AspRS, GatCAB, and tRNAAsn may assemble in an ∼400-kDa complex, known as the Asn-transamidosome, which couples the two steps of asparagine biosynthesis in space and time to yield Asn-tRNAAsn. We report the 3.7-Å resolution crystal structure of the Pseudomonas aeruginosa Asn-transamidosome, which represents the most common machinery for asparagine biosynthesis in bacteria. We show that, in contrast to a previously described archaeal-type transamidosome, a bacteria-specific GAD domain of ND-AspRS provokes a principally new architecture of the complex. Both tRNAAsn molecules in the transamidosome simultaneously serve as substrates and scaffolds for the complex assembly. This architecture rationalizes an elevated dynamic and a greater turnover of ND-AspRS within bacterial-type transamidosomes, and possibly may explain a different evolutionary pathway of GatCAB in organisms with bacterial-type vs. archaeal-type Asn-transamidosomes. Importantly, because the two-step pathway for Asn-tRNAAsn formation evolutionarily preceded the direct attachment of Asn to tRNAAsn, our structure also may reflect the mechanism by which asparagine was initially added to the genetic code.